Dr Ashraf Ghani, is Chair of the Transition Commission in Afghanistan and Chairman of the Institute for State Effectiveness. Clare Lockhart is co-founder and director of the Institute for State Effectiveness. Together, they have spent several years conducting research on political and economic transitions.

The panel will discuss their new paper on Syria which offers lessons learned from the global experience of the 1980s, 1990s and the first decade of the 21st century – lessons which might help the country not only avoid the deepening of civil war but move towards restructuring itself as a legitimate modern state.

The paper is available for download here [PDF]

Moderating the conversation will be LI’s Director of Political Studies Anne Applebaum.

The discussion will be broadcast live on the Institute’s website at 17:00 GMT. To view the webcast, please click here.

About the speakers

Dr. Ashraf Ghani is Chair of the Transition Commission in Afghanistan and Chairman of the Institute for State Effectiveness. As Adviser to the UN Secretary General he advised on the Bonn Agreement , and then as Afghanistan's Finance Minister between 2002-2004 he is credited with a series of successful reforms in Afghanistan, including reform of the treasury, customs, budget and the currency. He prepared Afghanistan's first National Development Framework and Securing Afghanistan's Future, a $28bn reconstruction program for the country. In 2010, he facilitated the Kabul Conference and Process to build internal consensus and external alignment on priorities in Afghanistan. Dr. Ghani was named best finance minister in Asia by Emerging Markets in 2003 and has previously been nominated for the posts of UN Secretary General and the President of the World Bank.

Trained in political science and anthropology at the American University of Beirut and Columbia University, Dr. Ghani served on the faculty at Johns Hopkins from 1983 to 1991 and has taught at Kabul University, Aarhus University and Berkeley. He was lead anthropologist at the World Bank from 1991-2001, working on large-scale development and institutional projects in East Asia, South Asia and Russia, and global issues of strategy and development. Dr. Ghani is involved on the advisory boards for a number of activities, including the UN Democracy Fund, IDEA, the Atlantic Council, and the World Justice Project of the American Bar Association. He is a former chair of the World Economic Forum’s Global Agenda Council on Fragile States. He is author (with Clare Lockhart) of Fixing Failed States (2008) and a Window to a Just Order (in Pushtu and Dari) (2009).

Clare Lockhart is co-founder and director of ISE (the Institute for State Effectiveness) which works with a range of countries aiming to make transitions from instability to stability and from poverty to prosperity. She is also director of the Market-Building Program at Aspen Institute, which focuses on approaches to job-creation and growth. In 2001 Ms. Lockhart was a member of the UN negotiation team for the Bonn Agreement on Afghanistan and spent several years living in the country as Adviser to the UN and Afghan Government. Prior to 2001, she managed a program on institutions at the World Bank. She is a lawyer and member of the Bar of England and Wales and has degrees from Oxford University (Modern History) and Harvard University (MPA, Kennedy School). She is co-author with Dr. Ghani of Fixing Failed States (2008) and has authored and co-authored numerous articles on development, institution-building and citizenship. Ms. Lockhart was selected as a Young Global Leader in 2011 and as Chair of the Fragile States Council in 2011- 2012 for the World Economic Forum and Vice-Chair for 2012-14. She is a regular contributor to the media. She serves on a number of advisory boards and task forces including the Women’s Regional Network for South Asia, Global Dignity and the Developmental Leadership Program.

About the Transitions Forum

The Legatum Institute's 'Transitions Forum' is a series of papers dedicated to the economics and politics of radical change.